Paolo Gargiulo



Biomedical Engineer at The National University Hospital of Iceland and Director of Institute of Biomedical and Neural Engineering, Reykjavik University

Email: paologar (at)

Phones: office: +354-5431533, mobile: +354-8245384

Department of science- Vísindadeild Landspitali (LSH) Biomedical Engineering Centre, Reykjavik University & Landspitali

(work in progress)

 Paolo Gargiulo

Paolo Gargiulo has been active in the field of Clinical Engineering and medical Image processing and 3-D modeling for surgical planning. He studied at TU Wien and finished his PhD in 2008. He has published over 30 papers in peer reviewed international journals and chapters in academic books. He is currently member of EU-COST project called Namabio, consultant of MedEl co-operating with Össur  for the assessment of total hip arthroplasty, with Cornell University (US) in Larynx Pacemaker development and with Washington University (US) in Brain Modeling project.


  • 2007 Co-author in the winning paper at MIMICS Innovation award in Washington USA
  • 2008 Finalist for Student Innovation award (as supervisor). Nýsköpunarverðlaun forseta Íslands 2008
  • 2012 Finalist for Student Innovation award (as supervisor). Nýsköpunarverðlaun forseta Íslands 2013
  • 2013 Young scientist of the year at University Hospital Landspitali

  1. Development and assessment of numerical profiles based on radiodensitometric distributions characteristics from computed tomography images. Thanks to this approach we have been demonstrating correlations between soft tissues and several biometrics parameters and comorbidity using the AGES database from the Icelandic heart association. The main potential impact of this work is possibility to predict a number of conditions such as cholesterol, diabetes and cardiovascular risks from a single CT image. I would like also to remark that this methodology and some applications were published in a chapter book on the: Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering, 2019; Vol. 2: 119-34. Elsevier.  P Gargiulo, MK Gislason, KJ Edmunds . CT-Based Bone and Muscle Assessment in Normal and Pathological Conditions.
  2. Neural engineering and postural control assessment. In 2013 I have established a facility based on high density EEG system where we have been study cortical changes and brain connectivity during postural control adaptation and habituation. Currently we are also assessing with our technology (HD-EEG)  the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation effect on schizophrenic patients in the frame of a scientific project in collaboration with the department of neurology at Landspitali, Iceland. The educational impact of this infrastructure and of its work is considerable since this lab provide teaching modules for different courses and a scientific facility for several scientists in Iceland and abroad.
  3. Rehabilitation engineering. For several years we have been working on the optimisation of prosthetic implant decision making in patients undergoing total hip replacement, collecting multi metric data from these patients at different points of time, before and after implant. This work is still ongoing and have as ultimate goal to provide surgeons with an application tool that elaborate biometrics data and computational data to support their decision. However thanks to the international resonance of this work we have been participating and received an EU grant H2020-NMBP-TR-IND-2018-2020, with a project entitled: RESTORE User-centred smart nanobiomaterial-based 3D matrices for chondral repair. In the frame of this project my team will be responsible for the 1stEuropean Database of patient-specific anatomical models for condyle lesions.
  4. 3-D printing and Surgical planning. In 2005 I developed and established at Landspitali a 3D-Printing service to support surgical planning with over 200 operation planned with a significant impact on the Icelandic health care system.  Thanks to this experience and know how I currently cooperate with institutions in Italy and UK to establish similar infrastructures.

1.      F. Barollo, Gargiulo, P et al., "Postural control adaptation and habituation during vibratory proprioceptive stimulation: an HD-EEG investigation of cortical recruitment and kinematics," in IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

2.      Ricciardi, C., Edmunds, K.J., Recenti, M., Sigurdsson, S., Gudnason, V., Carraro, U. and Gargiulo, P., 2020. Assessing cardiovascular risks from a mid-thigh CT image: a tree-based machine learning approach using radiodensitometric distributions. Scientific reports, 10(1), pp.1-13.

3.      Edmunds, K. J., Petersen, H., Hassan, M., Yassine, S., Olivieri, A., Barollo, F., ... & Gargiulo, P. (2019). Cortical recruitment and functional dynamics in postural control adaptation and habituation during vibratory proprioceptive stimulation. Journal of neural engineering. 16(2), 026037.

4.       Lovecchio J. Gargiulo P et al. A standalone bioreactor system to deliver compressive load under perfusion ow to hBMSC-seeded 3D chitosan-graphene templates. Scientific Report 2019.  doi:

5.      Recenti M, Ricciardi C, Edmunds K, Gislason MK, Gargiulo P. Machine learning predictive system based upon radiodensitometric distributions from mid-thigh CT images. European Journal of Translational Myology. 2019. 

6.      Marcu S, Pegolo E, Ívarsson E, Jónasson AD, Jónasson VD, Aubonnet R, Gargiulo P, Banea OC. Using high density EEG to assess TMS treatment in patients with schizophrenia. European Journal of Translational Myology. 2019.

7.      Recenti, M., Gìslason, M. K., Edmunds, K. J., & Gargiulo, P. (2019, August). Aging Health Behind an Image: Quantifying Sarcopenia and Associated Risk Factors from Advanced CT Analysis and Machine Learning Technologies. In International Symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (pp. 188-197). Springer, Cham.

8.      Edmunds K, Gíslason M, Sigurðsson S, Guðnason V, Harris T, Carraro U, P Gargiulo. (2018) Advanced quantitative methods in correlating sarcopenic muscle degeneration with lower extremity function biometrics and comorbidities. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0193241.

9.      Gargiulo, Paolo, Kyle Joseph Edmunds, Magnús K. Gíslason, Chase Latour, Þröstur Hermannsson, Luca Esposito, Paolo Bifulco et al. "Patient-specific mobility assessment to monitor recovery after total hip arthroplasty." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine (2018): 0954411918797971.

10.   L. Esposito, A. Cutolo, P. Bifulco, M. Cesarelli, P. Gargiulo, M. K. Gislason, H Jónsson jr and M. Fraldi  “TOWARDS A PATIENT-SPECIFIC ESTIMATION OF INTRA-OPERATIVE FEMORAL FRACTURE RISK” Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical  Engineering 22, no. 8 (2018)

11.   In complete SCI patients, long-term functional electrical stimulation of permanent denervated muscles increases epidermis thickness. G Albertin, C Hofer, S Zampieri, M Vogelauer, S Löfler, B Ravara, P Gargiulo. and U Carraro. Neurological research, 1-6. 2018

12.   Muscle Assessment Using 3D Modeling and Soft Tissue CT Profiling. P Gargiulo, KJ Edmunds, ID Arnadottir, U Carraro, MK Gíslason Rehabilitation Medicine for Elderly Patients, 213-221. 2018

13.   Recovery from muscle weakness by exercise and FES: lessons from Masters, active or sedentary seniors and SCI patients. U Carraro, H Kern, P Gava, C Hofer, S Loefler, P Gargiulo, K Edmunds, ...Aging clinical and experimental research 29 (4), 579-590, 2017

14.   New Directions in 3D Medical Modeling: 3D-Printing Anatomy and Functions in Neurosurgical Planning. P Gargiulo, Í Árnadóttir, M Gíslason, K Edmunds, I Ólafsson. Journal of Healthcare Engineering 2017

15.   Atrophy, ultra-structural disorders, severe atrophy and degeneration of denervated human muscle in SCI and Aging. Implications for their recovery by Functional Electrical Stimulation, updated. H Kern, C Hofer, S Loefler, S Zampieri, P Gargiulo, A Baba, A Marcante, ...Neurological Research, 1-7,2017

16.   Modulation of trophism and fiber type gene expression in denervated muscle activated by different patterns of electrical stimulation. Role of muscle fiber regeneration revisited in 2017. PG Andrea Marcante, Alfonc Baba, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Stefan Loefler and Paolo Gargiulo. Biology, Engineering and Medicine 2 (1), 1-9

17.   BIOMECHANICAL ASSESSMENT AND MODELLING OF TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY PATIENTS. M.K. Gislason, A. Menichetti, K. Edmunds, T. Hermannsson, H. Jonsson, L ...and P. Gargiulo. Bone & Joint J 99 (SUPP 1), 3, 2017


19.   Gargiulo P., Edmunds K.J., Arnadottir I.D., Carraro U., Gíslason M.K. (2018) Muscle Assessment Using 3D Modeling and Soft Tissue CT Profiling. In: Masiero S., Carraro U. (eds) Rehabilitation Medicine for Elderly Patients. Practical Issues in Geriatrics. Springer, Cham

20.   Singularity-free finite element model of bone through automated voxel-based reconstruction. L Esposito, P Bifulco, P Gargiulo, M Fraldi. Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering 19 (3), 257-262

21.   Recovery from muscle weakness by exercise and FES: lessons from Masters, active or sedentary seniors and SCI patients. U Carraro, H Kern, P Gava, C Hofer, S Loefler, P Gargiulo, K Edmunds, ...Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 1-12

22.   Coupling multiscale X-ray physics and micromechanics for bone tissue composition and elasticity determination from micro-CT data, by example of femora from OVX and sham rats. P Hasslinger, V Vass, A Dejaco, R Blanchard, G Örlygsson, P Gargiulo, ..International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanincs. 1-47

23.   "Quantitative Computed Tomography and image analysis for advanced muscle assessment."Edmunds, K. J., Gíslason, M. K., Arnadottir, I. D., Marcante, A., Piccione, F., & Gargiulo,  European Journal of Translational Myology 26.2 (2016).

24.   Biology of muscle atrophy and of its recovery by FES in aging and mobility impairments: roots and by-products U Carraro, H Kern, P Gava, C Hofer, S Loefler, P Gargiulo, S Mosole, ...European Journal of Translational Myology 25 (4), 221-230

25.   Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk Assessment to Optimize Prosthesis Selection in Total Hip Replacement Þ Pétursson, KJ Edmunds, MK Gíslason, B Magnússon, G Magnúsdóttir, P Gargiulo. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine

26.   U Carraro, KJ Edmunds, P Gargiulo. 3D false color computed tomography for diagnosis and follow-up of permanent denervated human muscles submitted to home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation. European Journal of Translational Myology 25 (2), 129-140.

27.   KJ Edmunds, P Gargiulo.  Imaging approaches in functional assessment of implantable myogenic biomaterials and engineered muscle tissue. European Journal of Translational Myology 25 (2), 63-76.

28.   L Wiedemann, J Chaberova, K Edmunds, G Einarsdóttir, C Ramon, P Gargiulo. Low-amplitude craniofacial EMG power spectral density and 3D muscle reconstruction from MRI. Eur J TranslMyol-Basic ApplMyol. 25 (2), 93-99. (2015)

29.   Improving planning and post-operative assessment for Total Hip Arthroplasty. B Magnússon, Þ Pétursson, K Edmunds, G Magnúsdóttir, G Halldórsson, P Gargiulo Eur J TranslMyol-Basic ApplMyol. 25 (2), 101-108 (2015)

30.   L Esposito, P Bifulco, P Gargiulo, M Fraldi. Singularity-free finite element model of bone through automated voxel-based reconstruction. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering,. 1-6 (2015)

31.   H Halldórsson, AJ Arason, M Sigurðardóttir, P Gargiulo, MK Magnússon, ... Sjaldgæfttilfelliafvöðvabandvefsæxlimeðbólgufrumuíferð í hægrikinnkjálka. Læknablaðið (2015)

32.   Gargiulo, P., P. Belfiore, E. A. Friðgeirsson, S. Vanhatalo, and C. Ramon. "The effect of fontanel on scalp EEG potentials in the neonate." Clinical Neurophysiology (2014).

33.   MK Gislason, A. Procopio, G. Örlygsson, Ó. E. SigurjónssonH. Jonsson Jr., P. Gargiulo Finite element modelling of the distal radioulnar joint. Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik(2014)

34.   Joseph Lovecchio,  Sandra M. Jónsdóttir-Buch, GuðrúnKristínEinarsdóttir, MagnúsKjartanGíslason,GissurÖrlygsson, ÓlafurEysteinn Sigurjónsson1 and Paolo Gargiulo Assessment of Perfusion Bioreactors System Using µCT Technology and 3D Modeling Methods. Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik(2014)

35.   Czenek, Agnes; Blanchard, Romane; Dejaco, Alexander; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur; Örlygsson, Gissur; Gargiulo, Paolo; Hellmich, Christian “Quantitative intravoxel analysis of microCT-scanned resorbing ceramic biomaterials - Perspectives for computer-aided biomaterial design” Journal of Materials Research , 29(23), 2757-2772.

36.   Ramon C, Garguilo P,Fridgeirsson EA, Jens Haueisen J. Changes in Scalp Potentials and Spatial Smoothing Effects of Inclusion of Dura Layer in Human Head Models for EEG Simulations. Frontiers in Neuroengineering 7(2014).

37.   MK Gislason, P Ingvarsson, P Gargiulo, S Yngvason, V Guðmundsdóttir, (2014) Finite element modelling of the femur bone of a subject suffering from motor neuron lesion subjected to electrical stimulation. European Journal of Translational Myology 24 (3)

38.   P Gargiulo, T Helgason, C Ramon, H Jónssonjr…(2014). CT and MRI assessment and characterization using segmentation and 3D modeling techniques: applications to muscle, bone and brain. - European Journal of Translational Myology, 2014

39.   Gargiulo P, Björnsson GÁ (2013) Integrated Medical Modeling Service to Optimize Planning for Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis and Maxillofacial Surgeries: 5 Years’ Experience. Anaplastology 2:121. doi: 10.4172/2161-1173.1000121

40.   Gargiulo, Paolo, Sigrún Björk Sævarsdóttir, Bryndís Baldvinsdóttir, and Ingvar Hákon Ólafsson. "Use of 3 Dimensional Models and Navigation System in Preparation for Brain Surgery." Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik (2013).

41.   Gargiulo, Paolo, Benedikt Helgasson, Benedikt Magnússon, Throstur Pétursson, Gianluca Mario Izzo, Gígja Magnúsdóttir, Grétar Halldórsson, Jan Tribel, and Halldor Jónsson. "Monitoring Bone Density from Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty using Computed Tomography and 3D Modeling Techniques." Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik (2013).

42.   Helgason, T., P. Gargiulo, V. Gudmundsdottir, S. Knutsdottir, S. Yngvason, and P. Invarsson. "Changes in Shape and Density of Denervated Muscles: Case Reports." Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik.

43.   Marcante, A., R. Zanato, M. Ferrero, S. Zampieri, H. Kern, R. Stramare, P. Gargiulo, U. Carraro, and S. Masiero. "Recovery of Tetanic Contractility of Denervated Muscle: A Step Toward a Walking Aid for Foot Drop." Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik.

44.   Magnússon, Benedikt, Þröstur Pétursson, Gígja Magnúsdóttir, Grétar Halldórsson, Jan Triebel, and Paolo Gargiulo. "Gait analysis, bone and muscle density assessment for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty." European Journal of Translational Myology 22, no. 4 (2013): 155-160.

45.   Pétursson, Þröstur, Benedikt Magnússon, Benedikt Helgason, Gigja Magnúsdóttir, Grétar Halldórsson, Jan Tribel, and Paolo Gargiulo. "Bone and muscle assessment in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty using HU based analysis." European Journal of Translational Myology 22, no. 3 (2013): 147-152.

46.   Gargiulo, Paolo, Benedikt Magnússon, Benedikt Helgason, Carmelina Befaro, and Þröstur Pétursson. "Bone Mineral Density and Fracture risk assessment for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty as support for decision making." European International Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 2 No. 5 96-105

47.   Gargiulo Paolo, Throstur Pétursson, Benedikt Magnússon, Paolo Bifulco, Mario Cesarelli, Gianluca Mario Izzo, Gígja Magnúsdóttir et al. "Assessment of Total Hip Arthroplasty by Means of Computed Tomography 3D Models and Fracture Risk Evaluation." Artificial organs (2013).

48.   Friðgeirsson, Egill A., Paolo Gargiulo, Ceon Ramon, and Jens Haueisen. "3D segmented model of head for modelling electrical activity of brain." European Journal Translational Myology-Basic Applied Myology 22, no. 1&2 (2012): 57-60.

49.   Benedikt Magnússon, Halldór Jónsson jr, Þröstur Pétursson, Gígja Magnúsdóttir, Grétar Halldórsson, Jan Triebel, Paolo Gargiulo “Gait Analysis, bone and muscle density in THA patients” Basic and applied myology: BAM 12/2012; 22(3&4):135-140.

50.   Þröstur Pétursson, Paolo Gargiulo, Benedikt Magnússon, Gigja Magnúsdóttir, Grétar Halldórsson, Jan Tribel, Halldór Jónsson jr “Bone and muscle assessment for total hip arthroplasty” .Basic and applied myology: BAM 12/2012; 22(3&4):129-134.

51.   Paolo Gargiulo, ThordurHelgason, PállIngvarsson, Winfried Mayr, Helmut Kern and Ugo Carraro “Medical Image Analysis and 3-D Modeling to Quantify Changes and Functional Restoration in Denervated Muscle Undergoing Electrical Stimulation Treatment”Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences 2012, 2:10

52.   P. Gargiulo P. J Reynisson, B. Helgason, H. Kern, W. Mayr, P. Ingvarsson, , T. Helgason U. Carraro“Muscle, tendons and bone: structural changes during denervation and FES treatment” Volume 33, Number 7, September 2011 , pp. 750-758(9)

53.   P. Gargiulo, T. Helgason P. J Reynisson, B. Helgason, H. Kern, W. Mayr, P. Ingvarsson, U. Carraro “Monitoring of Muscle and Bone Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury Patients Treated With Electrical Stimulation Using Three Dimensional Imaging and Segmentation Techniques: Methodological Assessment” Artificial Organs 2011. 35(3):275–281.

54.   P. Gargiulo, H. Petersen “Whale inner ear morphology: Use of 3D modelling and rapid prototyping technology” Journal of vestibular research-equilibrium & orientation, vol. 20 (3): 170, 2010

55.   H. Kern , R. Stramare, L. Martino, R.  Zanato, P. Gargiulo, U. Carraro “Permanent LMN denervation of human skeletal muscle and recovery by h-b FES: management and monitoring” European Journal Translational Myology - Myology Reviews 20 (3): 91-104, 2010

56.   P. Gargiulo, H. Kern, B. U. Carraro, Vatnsdal , P. Ingvarsson, S. SigrúnKnútsdóttir, V. Gudmundsdóttir , S. Yngvason, T. Helgason  “Quantitative color 3-dimensional computer tomography imaging of human long-term denervated Muscle” Neurological Research. Neurol Res. 2010 Feb;32(1):13-9.

57.   P. Gargiulo, B. Vatnsdal , P. Ingvarsson, S. S. Knútsdóttir, V. Gudmundsdóttir, S. Yngvason, H. Kern, U. Carraro, T. Helgason “Computational methods to analyze tissue composition and structural changes in denervated muscle undergoing therapeutic electrical stimulation” Basic Applied Myology 19 (4): 157-161, 200

58.   P. Gargiulo , B. Vatnsdal,  P. Ingvarsson, S.Knútsdóttir, V. Gudmundsdóttir, S.Yngvason and T. Helgason.. Restoration of Muscle Volume and Shape Induced by Electrical Stimulation of Denervated Degenerated Muscles: Qualitative and Quantitative Measurement of Changes in Rectus Femoris Using Computer Tomography and Image Segmentation. Artificial Organs (2008)  32(8):609–613.

59.   P. Gargiulo, T. Helgason, P. Ingvarsson, S. Knútsdóttir, V. Gudmundsdóttir, and S. Yngvason “Morphological changes in Rectus Femoris Muscle: Advanced Image Processing Technique and 3-Dimensional Visualization to Monitor Denervated and Degenerated Muscles Treated with Functional Electrical Stimulation.”  Journal of Basic and Applied Myology, BAM 17 (3&4):133-136, 2007

60.   T. Helgason, P. Gargiulo, F. Jóhannesdóttir, P. Ingvarsson, S. Knútsdóttir, V. Gudmundsdóttir, S. Yngvason. “Monitoring muscle growth and tissue changes induced by electrical stimulation of denervated degenerated muscles with CT Stereolithographic 3-D modelling” Artificial Organs, Vol 29, Issue 6, pp. 440-443, 2005


  • Development project: Design and development of the Icelandic Pacemaker database
  • Research project: The Role of longevity in the purchase of Pacemaker based on Icelandic Implant Statistics
  • Research and development project: Telemedicine for seamen in the North Atlantic (Project NATS)


  • Development project: Tele-ECG, development of ECG recorder and transmission link by Bluetooth (prototype)
  • Development project: Computational work and modelling in the Icelandic part of the European project RISE.
  • Development and Assessment of rapid prototyping technology in medical application


PhD study in Biomedical engineering at Vienna University of Technology. PhD title: "3D Modelling and Monitoring of Denervated Muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation Treatment and Associated Bone Structural Changes"

2006 - Service at Landspitali of 3D modelling and rapid prototyping to support operation   planning

            and diagnosis in different clinical cases

2008 - Assistant Professor School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University

2009 - Consultant work for Med-el Hearing Implant Company

2012 - Member of COST action project NAMABIO

Lead Guest Editor for Applied Bionics and Biomechanics - Submission Deadline 18 May 2018